This work focuses on a large-scale multi-cell multi-user MIMO system in which Lbase stations (BSs) of N antennas each communicate with K single-antenna user equipments. We consider the design of the linear precoder that minimizes the total power consumption while ensuring target user rates. Three configurations with different degrees of cooperation among BSs are considered: the single cell processing scheme (no cooperation between BSs), the coordinated beamforming scheme (only channel state information is shared between BSs) and the coordinated multipoint MIMO processing technology (channel state and data cooperation). The analysis is conducted assuming that N and K grow large with a non trivial ratio K/N and imperfect channel state information is available at the BSs. Tools of random matrix theory are used to compute, in explicit form, deterministic approximations for: (i) the parameters of the optimal precoder; (ii) the powers needed to ensure target rates; and (iii) the total transmit power. These results are instrumental to get further insight into the structure of the optimal precoders and also to reduce the complexity of its implementation in large-scale networks. Numerical results are used to validate the asymptotic analysis in the finite system regime and to make comparisons among the different configurations.